Index of Biocultural Diversity
The Index of Biocultural Diversity (IBCD), published in 2005, was the first global measure of biocultural diversity. Calculated at the country level, the IBCD has three components: an unadjusted richness measure, one adjusted for land area, and on adjusted for the size of the human population. The adjusted measures are derived from the differences between observed and expected diversity values. Expected diversity was calculated using the species–area relationship.
The biodiversity component of the IBCD is represented by country-level data on bird/mammal species diversity and plant diversity; the cultural diversity component, by data on linguistic, religious, and ethnic diversity.
The IBCD identified three areas of exceptional biocultural diversity: the Amazon Basin, Central Africa, and Inodmalaysia/Melanesia (see map).
PDF of the IBCD paper in the journal Ecological Indicators