Here’s an annotated list of our publications on biocultural diversity.

Books and chapters

DH & JL, “Congruence Between Species and Language Diversity,” chapter in The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages (OUP, 2018). Discusses the overlaps between species and language distributions, along with current conservation status. Includes sections on the Red List of Languages and the ILD.

Tove Skutnabb-Kangas & DH, “Biological diversity and language diversity: parallels and differences,” chapter in The Routledge Handbook of Ecolinguistics (Routledge, 2018). Analyzes parallels and differences from an ecolinguistic and language-rights orientation.

JL & DH, Biocultural Diversity: Threatened Species, Endangered Languages (WWF–Netherlands, 2014). Systematic but accessible explanation of the evolution and current status of biocultural diversity. Presents 2014 update to the ILD and introduces the Red List of Languages.

JL, “The Third Flowering of the Tree of Life,” chapter in Jorgen Randers, 2052 – A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years. (Chelsea Green, 2012). Essay on the future of Life on Earth.

DH, Ellen Woodley, and JL, “Measuring Status and Trends in Biological and Cultural Diversity,” chapter in Nature and Culture: Rebuilding Lost Connections (Earthscan, 2010). Explores different means of measuring diversity and cross-linkages.

Jonathan EM Baillie et al. incl. JL, Evolution Lost: Status and Trends of the World’s Vertebrates (Zoological Society of London, 2010). Red List threat status and Living Planet Index for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes.

JL et al., “The Living Planet Index,” chapter in Living Planet Report 2010 (WWF International, 2010). 7th edition of a report on the state of global biodiversity.


Sarah Humphrey, JL & Steve Goldfinger (eds.), WWF Living Planet Report 2008  (WWF International, 2008). 6th edition of report on state of global biodiversity and humanity's Ecological Footprint.

JL & Steve Goldfinger (eds.), WWF Living Planet Report 2006 (WWF International, 2006). 5th edition of LPR.

DH, In Light of Our Differences: How Diversity in Nature and Culture Makes Us Human (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002). Draws on a wide range of disciplines to probe the value and meaning of biocultural diversity.

DH, “On the Meaning and Moral Imperative of Diversity,” chapter in On Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language, Knowledge, and the Environment (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001). Argues that safeguarding diversity is not just prudent, but the right thing to do ethically.


DH & JL, “Preserving Biocultural Diversity.”  The New York Times, 12 August 2014. Introduces the idea of biocultural diversity to a mass audience.

Journal articles (* indicates peer reviewed)

DH, “Biocultural Diversity: Reason, Ethics, and Emotion.” Langscape 5:1, 10–13 (2016). [Magazine of Terralingua,] Restates the ethical arguments for preserving diversity.

MJR Dixon, JL et al. “Tracking global change in ecosystem area: the Wetland Extent Trends index,” Biological Conservation 193: 27–35 (2016). New method for an indicator of trends in habitat cover. (*)


DP Tittensor et al. incl. JL, “A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets,” Science 346: 241–244 (2014). Paper reporting on progress towards CBD 2020 targets. (*)

DH & JL, “The Index of Linguistic Diversity: A New Quantitative Measure of Trends in the Status of the World’s Languages,” Language Documentation & Conservation 4: 97–151 (2010). Inaugural presentation of the ILD, including technical appendix. (*)

SHM Butchart et al. incl. JL, “Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines,” Science 328: 1164–8 (2010). Paper reporting on failure to achieve CBD 2010 targets. (*)

Ben Collen, JL et al. [Monitoring Change in Vertebrate Abundance,” Conservation Biology 23: 317–327 (2008) Second paper on Living Planet Index. (*)

DH, “A Bridge over the Chasm: Finding Ways to Achieve Integrated Natural and Cultural Heritage Conservation,” International Journal of Heritage Studies 13:4/5, 380–392 (2007). Maintains that integrated biocultural conservation is the most effective way to protect diversity. (*)

JL et al., “The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 360: 289–295 (2005). The original paper on the Living Planet Index which is the basis of the Index of Linguistic Diversity. (*)

JL & DH, “A Global Index of Biocultural Diversity,” Ecological Indicators 5:3, 231–241 (2005). Inaugural presentation of the IBCD. (*)

DH, “Biodiversity and the Sacred: Some Insights for Preserving Cultural Diversity and Heritage,” Museum International 218, 63–69 (2003).  [Published by UNESCO.] How notions of sacred natural sites relate to cultural diversity. (*)

DH & Luisa Maffi, “Are Linguistic and Biological Diversity Linked?”, Conservation  in Practice 3:1, 26–27 (2002). Brief essay arguing in the affirmative.

Mathis Wackernagel et al. incl. JL, “Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy,” PNAS 99: 9266–9271 (2002). Original paper on the Ecological Footprint. (*)

DH, “Sameness and Silence: Language Extinctions and the Dawning of a Biocultural Approach to Diversity,” Global Biodiversity 8:3, 2–10 (1998).  [Published by the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.] Early synthetic discussion of species/language overlaps.

DH, “Losing Species, Losing Languages: Connections Between Biological and Linguistic Diversity,” Southwest Journal of Linguistics 15:1/2, 89–108 (1996). Initial presentation of data showing global interlinked patterns of species and language diversity. (*)

DH, “The Status of the World’s Languages as Reported in Ethnologue,” Southwest Journal of Linguistics 14:1/2, 1–28 (1995). First-ever demographic analysis of Ethnologue data. (*)

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